Sunday, March 20, 2011

OTV Deep Dive - Part 3

After a long delay, let's pick up where we left off last with our OTV deep dive. This post will focus on a key concept with OTV that is critical to understand. We'll examine how we localize our First Hop Redundancy Protocols (FHRPs). These protocols are Host Standby Routing Protocol (HSRP v1 and v2) Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP), and Gateway Load Balancing Protocol (GLBP). These protocols allow two network devices to share a common IP address to be used as the default gateway on a subnet and provide redundancy and load balancing to clients in that subnet.
Before we can discuss FHRP localization, let's review why this might be significant to our design. Typically with FHRPs the members of the group are local to each other both logically and physically. Depending on the FHRP there is load balancing or redirection between the devices to the "active" member to handle traffic. This works well when considered locally and most of us use it without a second thought.
When we start to stretch or extend our VLANs across distances, latency is introduced. While a 1ms one-way latency may not sound significant, when accumulated over a complete flow or transaction, it can become quite detrimental to performance. This is exacerbated if the two devices are both in the same location, but have default gateways in another data center. Sub optimal switching and routing at its finest. This effect is referred to as tromboning traffic and is illustrated below where device A needs to talk with device B and the default gateway resides across a stretched VLAN.











We address this with OTV by implementing filters to prevent the FHRP peers in each opposite data centers from seeing each other and therefore becoming localized. There are two approaches to do this, one using a MAC access list which we won't cover, and the other, recommended one is via an IP ACL that is applied as a VLAN ACL (VACL). To be fair, both work equally well in my experience, but he IP ACL is easier to operationalize and I am a staunch believer in making network easier to maintain and avoiding what I refer to as Science Fair Projects. We've all worked on, inherited or (hopefully not!) created a Science Fair Project - let's avoid that. ;)

The configuration for the IP ACL looks like this:

ip access-list HSRP_IP
10 permit udp any 224.0.0.2/32 eq 1985
20 permit udp any 224.0.0.102/32 eq 1985

This access list matches the multicast addresses for HSRPv1, and HSRPv2, though can be modified for VRRP and GLBP.
This access-list is then applied as a VACL to filter the FHRP hellos from entering the OTV through the internal interfaces. The VACL looks like below where we’ll filter HSRP on VLAN 31-33.

vlan access-map HSRP_Local 10
match ip address HSRP_IP
action drop
vlan access-map HSRP_Local 20
match ip address ALL
action forward
vlan filter HSRP_Local vlan-list 16,23

If you are like me and want to verify your VACL is applied and matching, the steps are not as easy we’d like them to be but the capability does exist. *NOTE* that I am not responsible for you monkeying around with any of the other commands available when you attach to the module. You’ve been warned. :)
The first thing to do is attach to the module where your internal interfaces physically are. In the example below, it’s module 1. If your OTV is configured in a non-default VDC, you’ll need to set the parser to use that VDC as below.

champs1# attach mod 1
Attaching to module 1 ...
To exit type 'exit', to abort type '$.'
module-1# vdc 3
module-1# show system internal access-list input statistics
VLAN 16 :
=========
Tcam 1 resource usage:
----------------------
Label_b = 0x806
Bank 0
------
IPv4 Class
Policies: VACL(HSRP_Local) [Merged]
Entries:
[Index] Entry [Stats]
---------------------
[0013] deny udp 0.0.0.0/0 224.0.0.102/32 eq 1985 [1863]
[0014] deny udp 0.0.0.0/0 224.0.0.2/32 eq 1985 [4121]

[0015] permit ip 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0 [1766386]

VLAN 23 :
=========
Tcam 1 resource usage:
----------------------
Label_b = 0x806
Bank 0
------
IPv4 Class
Policies: VACL(HSRP_Local) [Merged]
Entries:
[Index] Entry [Stats]
---------------------
[0013] deny udp 0.0.0.0/0 224.0.0.102/32 eq 1985 [1863]
[0014] deny udp 0.0.0.0/0 224.0.0.2/32 eq 1985 [4121]
[0015] permit ip 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0 [1766386]


With this configuration, the FHRP in each data center will be locally active and mitigate the tromboning we mentioned earlier. This has a significant impact in that now we only send traffic across the Data Center Interconnect (DCI) that needs to go across as the local routers in each site can service the traffic.

Note that is technique is useful for optimizing egress traffic but does nothing to help draw or “attract” traffic into the right data center. Other technologies that provide that functionality will be the topic of future blogs. ;)

One last step to undertake when performing FHRP isolation is to exclude the FHRP MAC addresses from being advertised by OTV. You might be thinking OTV won't know about the FHRP MACs becuase of the VACL, right? Wrong. :) Due to the nature of MAC address learning, OTV will learn about the MAC addresses before the VACL drops them so we need to tell OTV to not advertise them. This is a three part process where we'll define the mac access list, add it to a route-map and then apply it to the OTV ISIS process as shown below.

mac-list OTV_HSRP seq 10 deny 0000.0c07.ac00 ffff.ffff.ff00
mac-list OTV_HSRP seq 11 deny 0000.0c9f.f000 ffff.ffff.ff00
mac-list OTV_HSRP seq 15 deny 0100.5e00.0000 ffff.ffff.ff00
mac-list OTV_HSRP seq 20 permit 0000.0000.0000 0000.0000.0000


route-map OTV_HSRP_filter permit 10
match mac-list OTV_HSRP

otv-isis default
vpn Overlay0
redistribute filter route-map OTV_HSRP_filter


We’ll cover AED election, and some other fun topics in the next post (hopefully sooner rather than later.

As always, your comments and feedback are appreciated!

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